Differences in health and related factors among older working women, according to productive engagement types


  • Hwa-Mi Yang Department of Nursing, Daejin University, Pocheon-si, Republic of Korea
  • Hye-Ryoung Kim College of Nursing, ShinHan University, Dongducheon-si, Republic of Korea


Objectives: We aimed to understand the differences in health among paid, self-employed, and unpaid family workers and to examine the relationship between work-to-family enrichment, happiness and health among older working women.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The participants were 1,967 working women aged 55 and over, who participated in the 2019 Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Family. Health was measured using the single-item 5-point Likert scale of self-rated health. Work-to-family enrichment was measured on a 3-item scale using a 5-point Likert scale. Happiness was measured as a single item on a 10-point Likert scale.

Results: The self-rated health of unpaid family workers was lower than that of self-employed or paid workers (F=15.1, p <.001). In paid older working women, the absence of current illness (B= -0.37, P <.001), a higher work-to-family enrichment (B= 0.08, P =.025), and happiness (B= 0.22, P <.001) were associated with higher levels of self-rated health. In self-employed older working women, a higher level of happiness was associated with a higher level of self-rated health (B= 0.17, P <.001). In the case of unpaid family workers, it was found that their economic status was not low (B= -0.11, P =.004), they were not currently suffering from an illness (B= -0.34, P <.001), and their higher level of happiness was associated with a higher level of self-rated health (B=-0.23, P <.001).

Conclusion: Factors affecting health may differ depending on productive engagement types. The development of health policies that takes these differences into account is necessary.

Keywords: Happiness; Women, working; Work Engagement; Health; Older adults



Author Biographies

Hwa-Mi Yang, Department of Nursing, Daejin University, Pocheon-si, Republic of Korea


Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Daejin University, Pocheon-si, Republic of Korea;



Hye-Ryoung Kim, College of Nursing, ShinHan University, Dongducheon-si, Republic of Korea


Assistant Professor,

College of Nursing, ShinHan University, Dongducheon-si, Republic of Korea;

https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 7348-3061


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Original Research